Warm-up is the beginning phase of the training session in which you prepare the body for activity. Proper warm-up improves the muscles' ability to perform work and helps prevent injuries by increasing blood flow, loosening and stretching muscle fibres and connective tissues (tendons and ligaments).
Cool-down is gradually tapered back to a resting phase, after completing the cardiovascular phase of training. Proper cool-down reduces muscle soreness and prevent injuries by allowing muscles to flush wastes generated by exercise.
Aerobic endurance is the ability of the body's energy systems to carry and use nutrients as fuels and building blocks over a given period of time. Fitness of the circulatory, respiratory, and muscular systems is especially important for good aerobic endurance.
Aerobic endurance and a healthy diet are necessary for optimal health and performance. Aerobic exercise helps maintain efficient and proper function of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. A healthful diet provides necessary nutrients to sustain energy levels and allow efficient functioning of body systems. Active lifestyles and different life stages change the body's nutritional demands. Together, good nutrition and physical activity will promote lifelong health benefits and disease prevention. To feel good and enjoy life, physical activity and nutrition should be fun, individual, and pleasurable.
Frequency is how often you do your chosen aerobic activity. You should do aerobic activity most days of the week, accumulating at least 30 minutes each day. Frequent activity maintains efficiency of heart, lungs, and blood vessels to enhance the circulation of oxygen to the cells.
Intensity is the level at which you perform an activity, ranging from moderate to vigorous. Intensity for aerobic activity can be correlated with heart rate, which can indicate oxygen use and respiration activity. The intensity you need to improve or maintain your aerobic endurance depends on the type of activity you choose. Your current fitness status, personal goals, physical skills, time, and other life responsibilities are factors that also influence the activities you choose. Many activities provide aerobic benefit but at varying intensities. Intensity relates to frequency, duration, and the type of activity you choose. You perceive exertion through increases in heart rate, breathing, perspiration, and tiredness.
Time is how long you need to be aerobically active to improve or maintain aerobic endurance, You should accumulate at least 30 minutes of aerobic activity most days of the week.
Type means what specific activity you participate in to improve or maintain your aerobic endurance. The type of activity you choose depends on your personal goals and aerobic fitness.
Overload is an increase in frequency, intensity, or time beyond the body's normal capacity. Levels of overload should be based upon an individuals fitness goals. Overload for aerobic endurance requires increasing heart rate within the training zone, exercising for longer, or both. The concepts of frequency, intensity, time, and type or specificity (FITT) offer knowledge to choose strategies for doing more, which leads to demonstrating progression.
Progression is a sequential change in frequency, intensity, and/or time. Overload is an increase in frequency, intensity, or time beyond the body's normal capacity. Levels of overload should be based upon an individual's fitness goals.